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Name: Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas

Title: Associate Professor


Phone: 406-243-4785

Office: SB 287

Lab Phone: 406-243-4793

Lab: SB 288



Dr. Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas is a physician with two American Boards in Anatomical Pathology and Neuropathology, a PhD in Toxicology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and two years of postdoctoral experience in Environmental Pathology at the UNC School of Medicine in Chapel Hill. In addition, she holds a BA in English Literature and a MA in Comparative Literature. She joined the CSFN in fall of 2004 which fulfills all her major clinical and research interests including studying pediatric populations for the chronic effects of air pollutants and her basic studies in Alzheimer’s disease.


Research Statement

Our laboratory is interested in the chronic effects of exposure to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors in clinically healthy children. A crucial aspect is the role of cytokine imbalance in the respiratory tract, and cardiovascular pathology and on systemic effects.

We are also interested in the role outdoor and indoor air pollutants-specially fine and ultrafine particulate matter, and lipopolysaccharides could be playing in the brain pathology we have described for both dogs and humans chronically exposed to air pollutants.

The canine chronic brain inflammation and the observation of the acceleration of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology, were the basis to explore the brains of subjects residing in the same areas. In our most recent work we showed that the frontal cortex and hippocampus of neurologically and cognitively intact lifelong residents of cities with severe air pollution exhibit evidence of chronic inflammation and neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of ß amyloid (Aß42).

These findings suggest that exposure to severe urban air pollution is associated with brain inflammation and amyloid deposits, causes of neuronal dysfunction that precede the appearance of neuritic plaque formation and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.



Calderón-Garcidueñas L., et al. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer’s-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollutionTox Pathol. 2004;32:650-658.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., et al. DNA damage in nasal and brain tissues of canines exposed to air pollutants is associated with evidence of chronic brain inflammation and neurodegenerationToxicol Pathol. 2003:31:524-538.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., et al. Respiratory damage in children exponed to urban pollution. Pediatric Pulmonol. 2003:36:148-161.
Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Azzarelli B., Acuna H., Garcia R., Gambling T.M., Osnaya N., Monroy S., Tizapantzi M.R., Villarreal A. Air Pollution and Brain Damage. Tox Path. 2002;30:373-389.

Villarreal A., Acuña H., Garduño M., Henriquez-Roldan C.F., Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Valencia -Salazar G. Assessment of physical education time and outdoor time in elementary and middle school students in South Mexico City: The dilemma between physical fitness and the adverse effects of outdoor pollutant exposure. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57:450-460.

Amador Zarco J.J., Mora-Tiscareno A., Sangri-Pinto A.G., Calderón-Garcidueñas L. Nasal squamous cell carcinoma in a child. J Otolaryngology. 2002;31:45-49.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Valencia-Salazar G., Rodriguez -Alcaraz A., et al. p53 in nasal biopsies of children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants. Toxicol Path. 2001;29:558-564.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Gambling T.M., Acuna H., Garcia R., Osnaya N., et al. Canines as Sentinel Species for Assessing Chronic Exposures to Air pollutants. Cardiac Pathology. Toxicol Sciences. 2001; 61:356-367.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Mora-Tiscareno A., Fordham L., Chung C.H., et al. Canines as Sentinel Species for Assessing Chronic Exposures to Air pollutants. Respiratory Pathology. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61:342-355.

Moss O.R., Gross E.A., James R.A., Janszen D.B., Ross P.W., Roberts K.C., Howard A.M., Harkema J.R., Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Morgan K.T. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2001; Mar(100):1-24.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Valencia-Salazar G., Rodriguez -Alcaraz A., Gambling T.M., Garcia R., Osnaya N., Villarreal A., Devlin R.B., Carson J.L. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:132-138.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Devlin R.B., Miller F.J. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants. Medical Hypothesis. 2000;55:373-378.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Mora-Tiscareno A., Chung C.J., Valencia, Fordham L.A., Garcia R., Osnaya N., Romero L., Acuna H., Villarreal A., Devlin R.B., Koren H.S. Exposure to air pollution is associated with lung hyperinflation in healthy children and adolescents in Southwest Mexico City: A Pilot Study. Inhalation Toxicol. 2000;12:537-561.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Delgado R., Calderón-Garcidueñas A., Meneses A., Ruiz L.M., de la Garza J., Acuna H., Villarreal A., Raab-Traub N., Devlin R.B. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. A series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link? Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 2000;122:499-508.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Wen-Wang L., Zhang Y.J., Osnaya N., Garcia R., et al. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxiguanosine, a major mutagenic oxidative DNA lesion, and DNA strand breaks in nasal respiratory epithelium of children exposed to urban pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107:469-474.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Rodríguez-Alcaraz A., Garcia R., Barragan G., Villarreal A., et al. Cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium of people exposed to urban pollution. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:383-389.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Rodríguez-Alcaraz A., Villarreal A., Lyght O., Janszen D., Morgan K.T. Nasal Epithelium as a Sentinel for Airborne Environmental Pollution. Toxicological Sciences, 1998;46:352-364.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Osnaya N., Rodriguez-Alcaraz A., Villarreal A. DNA strand breaks in Nasal Respiratory Epithelium from Children Exposed to Urban Pollution. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1997;30:11-20.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Osnaya N., Ramirez L., Villarreal A. DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 104:160-168, 1996.

Calderon-Garcidueñas L., Rodriguez-Alcaraz A., García R., Ramirez L., Barragan G. Nasal Inflammatory Responses in Children Exposed to a Polluted Urban Atmosphere. J Toxicol Environm Health. 45:427-437,1995.

The University of Montana-Missoula
The Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences
32 Campus Drive, Skaggs 395
Missoula, MT 59812-1552
Phone 406.243.4767 Fax: 406.243.5228

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